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Elena Petrovna informed her daughter Nina just before her death.

Elena Petrovna informed her daughter Nina just before her death.

Computations made with the help of computers and taking into account the presence of a magnetic field and a number of other factors allow us to explain the origin of the planetary system from the gas-dust cloud that surrounded the young Sun about 5 billion years ago. However, some aspects of this long complex process continue to be studied and refined.


Kondratyuk Yurii Vasyliovych: biography and scientific activity. Abstract

The abstract provides information about one of the pioneers of world cosmonautics Kondratyuk Yuri Vasilyevich

Alexander Ignatiyovych Shargei was born on June 9 (June 21 in the new style) in 1897 in Poltava (now the territory of Ukraine). Lyudmila Lvivna Shargei’s mother (née Schlippenbach) soon after her birth, Sasha became seriously ill and was placed in a mental hospital, where she died around 1910.

Father Ignatius Benediktovich Shargei played only an episodic role in raising his son. Shortly after the birth of the boy, he left his family, studied at the universities of Kiev and St. Petersburg, in Germany at the Darmstadt Higher School of Technical Sciences. The man is bright, talented, he could not prosper in life. In St. Petersburg, Ignatius Shargei entered into a civil marriage with Elena Petrovna Giberman. In 1910 he died of a “rotten infection of the blood.”

Little Sasha was raised in the family of his cousin Kateryna Kirillovna and grandfather Yakym Nikitich Datsenko. Due to the current life circumstances, it was they, grandfather and grandmother, who became his educators and real parents. The future scientist spent his childhood and adolescence in the atmosphere of Ukrainian patriarchal life.

From 1910 to 1916 he studied at the Second Poltava Men’s Gymnasium and graduated with a silver medal. Already in the senior classes of the gymnasium he became interested in the problem of interplanetary flights, and a few years later completed a manuscript on these issues: “Those who will read to build” (1918-1919).

In this work, independently of Tsiolkovsky, he derived the basic equation of motion of the rocket by the original method, gave a diagram and description of a four-stage rocket on oxygen-hydrogen fuel, the combustion chamber of an engine with a checkerboard and other arrangements of oxidizer and fuel, paraboloidal nozzle.

They were offered:

use the resistance of the atmosphere to brake the rocket during the descent in order to save fuel; when flying to other planets to bring the ship into the orbit of its artificial satellite, and to land a person on them and return to the ship to use a small takeoff and landing ship (the proposal is implemented in the program “Apollo”); use the gravitational field of oncoming celestial bodies to accelerate or decelerate when flying in the solar system (perturbation maneuver).

In the same work, the possibility of using solar energy to power the onboard systems of spacecraft, as well as the possibility of placing large mirrors in Earth orbit to illuminate the Earth’s surface.

In 1916 he entered the mechanical department of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute (now St. Petersburg State Technical University), but in November of that year he was drafted into the army and enrolled in the school of ensigns at one of the St. Petersburg cadet schools. Prior to demobilization in March 1918, he fought on the Turkish front.

After the October Revolution, as an officer in the tsarist army, he was mobilized into the white army, but deserted from it. At the end of 1919 he was mobilized again. In order not to fight in the White Army, on the way from Kiev to Odessa, he fled from the military echelon, losing all documents.

When the Bolsheviks firmly established themselves in power, Alexander Shargei realized what threatened him the past of the tsar’s officer. And in this regard for some time was forced to live with acquaintances in a semi-legal position. On August 15, 1921, his stepmother Olena Petrovna Giberman (Kareev’s second marriage), who loved and respected her stepson very much, obtained the documents of Georgy (in the Orthodox pronunciation – Yuri) Vasilyevich Kondratyuk, who was three years younger than Alexander. From that moment on, the scientist was not subject to his further destiny (it is unlikely that topics for narrative essays he would have survived if the GPU had known his true biography).

A few words about the man who gave his name to Alexander Shargei. The real Kondratyuk was born on August 13 (August 26 in the new style) in 1900 in the city of Lutsk, Volyn province (now the territory of Ukraine), and on March 1, 1921, as a student at the University of Kiev, he died of pulmonary tuberculosis.

His brother Volodymyr Vasyliovych Kondratyuk taught at one of Kyiv’s schools, where Oleksandr’s half-sister Nina Ignatiivna Shargei studied. Elena Petrovna Giberman-Kareeva persuaded him to hand over the documents of his deceased brother to Alexander. Only a few people knew this secret and kept it for many years. Elena Petrovna informed her daughter Nina just before her death. In 1977, Nina Ignatiyivna Shargei gave written testimony to the Special Commission on the circumstances of the change of name and surname of her half-brother Alexander Ignatiyovych Shargei.

From 1921 to 1927, Kondratyuk worked in Southern Ukraine, the Kuban, and the North Caucasus, starting with a lubricator and trailer driver and ending with an elevator mechanic. In 1927, Kondratyuk was invited to Novosibirsk to work at Khliboprodukt, where he had to take part in the construction and improvement of elevators (it was then that he built the famous Mastodont elevator, a 10,000-ton granary built without a single nail).

In 1929, he published in Novosibirsk at his own expense a circulation of 2,000 copies of the book “The Conquest of Interplanetary Space” in which the sequence of the first stages of space exploration was determined. The issues raised in his early work “Those Who Will Read to Build” were discussed in more detail. In particular, the book proposed the use of rocket and artillery systems for the supply of satellites in orbit (currently, this proposal is implemented in the form of a transport system “Progress”). In addition, the paper investigated the issues of thermal protection of spacecraft during their movement in the atmosphere.

It is interesting that in the preface to the book Kondratyuk wrote that the technical solutions offered to him can be implemented at the achieved level of technical development, especially by Americans. But we had to wait a few more decades for all the proposals to gradually find their application in rocketry and astronautics in the USSR and the United States.

Due to the fact that the book was published far from Moscow in a very small edition, it failed to gain widespread worldwide popularity and influence the development of real models of rocket technology and practical astronautics. And although the book was republished in 1947 by Oborongiz Publishing House, it never gained widespread popularity. Currently, it can be considered only in the historical aspect.

Life forced Yu. V. Kondratyuk to deal with issues not related to the development of outer space, although, as he himself wrote, everything he did except space was only a way to earn money for further research in the field of access to extraterrestrial space.

On July 30, 1930, Yu. V. Kondratyuk, along with several other Khliboproduct employees, was arrested on charges of sabotage. One of the charges was that he built the Mastodon not only without drawings, which in itself was a serious violation of the rules of the building, but also without nails. Local authorities have concluded that the building will not withstand this amount of grain and will collapse, thus destroying 10,000 tons of grain. On May 10, 1931, he was sentenced to three years in a concentration camp (the Judicial Board for Criminal Cases of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, by its ruling on OS-70-8 of March 26, 1970, rehabilitated Kondratyuk for lack of corpus delicti).

However, instead of camps, Yuriy Vasyliovych was hired to work in the specialized bureau 14 in Novosibirsk for the design of coal enterprises. He worked there until August 1932, having obtained a patent and copyright certificate in the field of mining equipment. They published articles on a number of special problems: acceleration and facilitation of mine drilling with mechanization of concrete and rock harvesting, preservation of high-resistance concrete and permanent support of mine shafts, reinforced concrete dill.

While still working in Bureau 14, Yu. V. Kondratyuk got acquainted with the terms of the tender for the preliminary design of the mighty Crimean wind power plant (WPP), announced by the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry (Narkomtyazhprom). The project of the station was co-authored with PK Gorchakov, and later the project involved engineer NV Nikitin, the future creator of the Ostankino TV tower in Moscow. The sketch design of the wind farm was completed in November 1932, and soon the authors of the project received permission from the GPU to travel to Moscow.

At the urging of Narkomtyazhprom in 1933, Kondratyuk was released early from deportation. At the competition, the project was called the best. The final technical design was completed by mid-February 1934. In 1937, on Mount Ai-Petri in the Crimea, the construction of the foundation of the station began according to the prepared working drawings. However, in 1938 it was decided to stop the design and construction of powerful wind farms. In this regard, for the next two years Kondratyuk had to design small wind power plants in the Design and Experimental Office of Wind Power Plants (PEKVES).

It should be noted that only now, half a century later, humanity is beginning to return to the idea of ​​using wind as an environmentally friendly source of energy.

On June 22, 1941, the Great Patriotic War began. It is still unknown how and when the life of Yuri Kondratyuk ended. It is probably known that on July 4, 1941 he enlisted in the People’s Militia and served in the communications company of the 2nd Rifle Regiment of the Division of the People’s Militia of the Kiev district of Moscow. On July 7, the regiment went to the front and took up the defense 150 kilometers from Moscow. On October 3, 1941, the soldiers of the People’s Militia, enlisted in the Red Army at that time, entered the battle with the Nazi troops.


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